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Failure propagation in electrical and electronic space systems

The tutorial on failure propagation in electrical and electronic space systems is intended as an introduction to the subject of failure propagation containment and avoidance for space electrical and electronic items. 

It is directed both to system and subsystem electrical architects and to electronic/ electrical equipment designers.

The tutorial has mainly a didactical purpose, for enlarging target groups awareness on the problems of failure propagation and prevention, and to propose pragmatic yet effective solutions.

The covered subjects are the following:
  • Space environment implications
  • Electrical/electronic design for space: careful & conservative
  • The art of failure propagation avoidance
  • Failure tolerance
  • Introduction to redundancy
  • Introduction to protections
  • FMECA principles
  1. At functional level
  2. At EEE component level
  3. Drawbacks of actual FMECA process
  • Failure propagation
  1. Principles
  2. Recognition of failure propagation peculiar cases
  3. Alternative methods to control failure propagation
The concepts are expressed as much as possible in a systematic and generic form, so that to allow their application both at system/ subsystem and at equipment level. 

In any case, specific examples at circuit level are provided to illustrate the concepts.
Short Biography
Ferdinando Tonicello, Italian, resident in the Netherlands since 1997.
Presently (since 2015) Power Management And Distribution Lead Engineer in ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands. 
He is author/co-author of a number of papers and patents on power system, power supply and conditioning for space applications. In the course of his professional life, he has working on a number of ESA satellites (Rosetta, Integral, MEX, VEX, Goce, Gaia, Bepi Colombo, Juice and others) and directly or indirectly been responsible of technical management of a number of R&D activities. He prepared/presented a number of tutorials on the electrical and electronic domain for space applications.

Lithium ion Batteries Cell-to-Cell Propagation Risk for Crewed Space Flight

Li-ion batteries pose a significant fire risk should a single cell go into thermal runaway due to an internal short propagating to the rest of the battery.  While this type of event is not a common occurrence, the consequence of a cell-to-cell propagating fire can be catastrophic to both the crew and the vehicle especially for larger batteries.  NASA has invested resources into the understanding and mitigating the cell-to-cell propagation risk for human space flight with a focus on using commercial small cells for battery developments.  Cell-to-cell propagation test requirements with pass/fail criteria have been established and are applicable to current crewed space missions.  The relevant design parameters for a battery to be passively propagation resistant and how to verify through test, the battery meets the requirements will be reviewed.
Short Biography
David Delafuente, Ph.D. is the Battery Safety Technical Discipline Lead at NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas.  He is responsible to evaluate the safety of flight batteries for ISS and other crew missions for NASA.  David is also focused on developmental efforts to improve the safety of batteries while increasing the energy storage capabilities for crewed space flight.  He has over 10 years of battery experience with applications from underwater to space and everything in between.  David is one of the pioneers in the field of non-propagating lithium-ion batteries and successfully matured a large format, non-propagating battery design for operational use in a manned submersible vehicle.  He continues to improve and implement unique battery designs while increasing the safety and capability of battery operations for space applications.  David holds a B.S. in Chemistry from Berry College and a Ph.D. in Chemistry from the University of Virginia.

Modelling of solar cell degradation in space due to particle irradiation

Modelling of solar cell degradation due to particle irradiation forms an important part of the power analysis for space missions. Two methods are nowadays applied to carry out this kind of analysis – the so-called “equivalent fluence method” that was first described by scientist from JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) and the “displacement damage dose” method that was introduced by NRL (Naval Research Laboratory). Both methods will be described in detail. Pros and cons of each method will be discussed and the way to get consistent results when applying one or the other method will be provided. An important part of the tutorial will be dedicated to practical examples. Questions like: “How do I analyse a given data set?” and “How do I get a remaining factor for a given mission by using SPENVIS?” will be addressed.
Short Biography
Carsten Baur studied Physics in Freiburg, Germany, where he joined the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems in 2000 for doing his diploma thesis and his PhD on the development and characterisation of III-V space solar cells”. Since 2006 Carsten is with ESA as a solar cell engineer where he has responsibility in the definition and supervision of R&D activities and in project support for missions like JUICE or ELECTRA. In the field of modelling of solar cell degradation due to particle irradiation, Carsten is active since almost 20 years within which he also published a number of scientific papers on the topic.

Design of EMC filters for DC/DC converters and Stability of cascaded power system

One of the most recurrent problems found in electrical designs for ESA spacecraft are resonance circuits that are not properly damped. The underestimated efforts for the topic, manifest itself into many different problems of which a few to mentioned are:
  • Conducted Emission and Susceptibility problems
  • Problems with control loop instability in Converters and Regulators
  • Step-load anomaly behaviour in power conditioning
  • Insufficient snubber design
  • Gain/Phase-sensitivity in RF resonator circuits
  • Anomaly behaviour found in cascaded systems 
The training objective is to step-by-step go through the basics of the most common resonating LC(R)-circuits, and firstly explain in details on how to damp them properly. This will give us a "toolbox". Thereafter, the training will look into relevant problems from the real world, firstly focusing on the DC/DC converter's input/output filtering, but in extension as well a study of snubber network designs. Finally there will be a discussion on cascaded systems and how we relate to the importance of damping to Middlebrook's (and other) theorems for stability. The training will be split into 4 blocks of 45 min each.
  1. Damping of resonant LC(R) circuits - The "Toolbox"
  2. Filter design, PSpice Modelling & Damping
  3. Damping of Snubber networks
  4. Filter design (output <-> input) and Cascaded systems of resonant circuits
The training material, will be a book printed presentation slides which will serve as a "toolbox" for the designer and reviewer of electronics.

Short Biography
The tutorial is held by Sven Landstroem from SCI-PRS in ESTEC. Sven has a CV that covers reviewing & design of power conditioning, mixed analog and digital electronics and is specialised as well in Radiation effects on EEE components and circuitry. Sven has been employed as Teacher at Chalmers University in Gothenburg (1993), in Industry/Space industry (1994-2001), his own consultancy company (2010-2014) and with ESA/ESTEC in Noordwijk (2001-2010, 2014-Today).